No Liability for School in $4-Million Gender Discrimination Suit, Jury Finds

A federal jury concluded that the former Superintendent of the East Greenbush Central School District failed meet her burden of proving she was terminated based on her gender and pregnancy status. Accordingly, the District was not liable for the more than $4 million in damages sought.

Angela Nagle became Superintendent of the District in 2008. Nagle and the District amended her employment agreement several times, and the last amendment provided that she was to remain an employee through June 2016. Nagle went on maternity leave in December 2014 and returned to work in March 2015. Shortly after returning, the Board of Education for the District informed Nagle that the District would not renew her contract.

Nagle commenced an action against the District, the Board, and individual Board members. In her Complaint, Nagle asserted a number of claims against them, including claims under Title VII and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA), 42 U.S.C. § 1983, Title IX, the Americans with Disabilities Act, and the Family and Medical Leave Act.

Central to these claims were allegations that the District terminated Nagle for exercising her right to take maternity leave, and that stereotypes regarding working mothers of young children motivated the Board’s decision and behavior toward Nagle. Among other things, Nagle based her claims on alleged Board member comments questioning Nagle’s ability to work following her pregnancy.

The Board responded that it had legitimate, nondiscriminatory reasons not to renew Nagle’s employment, including Nagle’s communication problems with the Board, opposition to Board directives, and difficult relationships with staff.

The Honorable Brenda K. Sannes, U.S. District Judge for the Northern District of New York, significantly pared down Nagle’s claims on summary judgment. Judge Sannes’s order left only two claims for trial before the jury: Title VII and PDA discrimination claim against the District and the Board, and the 42 U.S.C. § 1983 claim against the individual defendants.

Deliberating after presentation of the evidence at trial, the jury did not get beyond the first question on the special verdict form. It concluded Nagle did not establish by a preponderance of the evidence that her gender was a motivating factor in the District’s decision not to extend her employment. The jury thus concluded the defendants were not liable for gender discrimination, much less for a damages award of $4+ million that Nagle was seeking.

Lesson for employers: Even if remarks of concern made by management and other decision-makers are well-intentioned, employees may construe them as evidence of discrimination. Nagle’s case brings to mind the importance of workplace training.

Scientist Awarded $3M by Pennsylvania Jury in Gender Discrimination Suit

A federal jury recently awarded a female scientist $3 million for her gender discrimination claims against PPG Industries, Inc., headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Half of the award was for emotional distress damages.

In the case, Carol Knox worked for PPG for 23 years and was a Project Manager in the research and development group, where she was the only female, at the time of her termination in 2013. Knox brought suit in 2015 alleging gender and age discrimination.

Knox alleged that her supervisor had fired her because he did not want to work with a woman. Knox asserted that her supervisor falsely accused her and conducted a sham investigation as an excuse to terminate her. She alleged that her supervisor for the last three years with the company, who was a decision-maker in her termination, directed sexist remarks at her, demonstrating a bias against women, and treated her differently than her male counterparts by assigning her to administrative teams rather than technical teams. Knox further claimed that she reported her concerns regarding some of this behavior to PPG’s Human Resources department. Finally, Knox asserted that shortly prior to her termination, her supervisor attempted to drive her out of his group by encouraging her to take a different position within PPG, and then became “irate” and “menacing” when she decided not to transfer.

The company argued that it had a legitimate basis for firing Knox. Shortly prior to her termination, Knox was involved in investigating whether an extramarital affair between a male manager and his female subordinate violated company policies. Later, Knox and other employees received an email from an unknown address attaching photos of the subjects of the affair that suggested a romantic relationship between the two. PPG investigated the origin of the email and questioned Knox about a similar email she had received six months earlier, of which Knox denied all knowledge. PPG then terminated Knox for making inconsistent statements and failing to cooperate fully into PPG’s investigation. Knox argued that the investigation was a “sham” and an excuse to terminate her.

After a four-day trial in the U.S. District Court in Pittsburgh, the jury ruled in favor of Knox on her gender discrimination claims, awarding her $993,495 in front pay, $478,585 in back pay, and $1.5 million in emotional distress damages.

This case is an example of the way jury trials may play out in the era of the #MeToo movement. Plaintiffs now have more support than ever to bring their claims. For example, the TIME’S UP Legal Defense Fund offers help with legal fees and costs, as well as connections to the media, to individuals claiming sexual harassment and retaliation. Employers should make sure to respond to all complaints with a thorough and objective investigation, and all subsequent employment actions or investigations involving the complainant should be strictly job-related and well-documented.


Florida Jury Awards Former University Registrar $310,500 In Retaliation Suit

A jury recently returned a $310,500 verdict in favor of a former University of South Florida employee on her retaliation claim against the University. DeBose v. USF Board of Trustees, et al, No. 8:15-cv-02787 (M.D. Fla. Sept. 26, 2018).   The former employee, Angela DeBose, claimed she was retaliated against because she had filed internal race bias complaints with the University and a U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission charge of discrimination.

DeBose was hired by the University in 1988, and by 1996, had become the registrar for the university system. She claimed she had received exemplary performance reviews from 1988 to 2013. Beginning in 2013, and continuing through 2015, DeBose claimed she was subjected to racial harassment and a deliberate campaign to undermine and fire her. This campaign included being overlooked for promotions, bullying, and degrading epithets.

DeBose filed an internal ethics complaint against another administrator, charges of discrimination internally with the University, and eventually a charge of discrimination with the EEOC in December 2014.  She unsuccessfully sought a temporary restraining order and preliminary injunction preventing retaliation or termination during her EEOC proceedings. DeBose was given a notice of separation/termination and told to immediately leave campus on May 19. She was eventually terminated effective August 19, 2015. Following the initial notice, DeBose applied for and received a job offer from another university. That offer, however, was rescinded after the prospective employer called the University for a reference.

DeBose filed her lawsuit, pro se, in December 2015. At trial, the jury found the University had retaliated against DeBose, they did not find that she was discriminated upon because of her race. The jury found a preponderance of the evidence showing that her race was a factor in the decision to end her employment, but it also found that she would have been discharged regardless of her race.  The jury had considered DeBose’s internal complaints, the EEOC charge, the prior court action, and the bad job reference. In addition to $310,500 in damages for lost wages and benefits found by the jury, DeBose, who is an attorney licensed outside of Florida, has also moved for $712,500 in attorneys’ fees, $102,520 in litigation expenses, as well as front pay. The University has indicated it will appeal.

This case is yet another example of how a retaliation claim can prevail even in the absence of a finding of discrimination. Employers should respond to all complaints involving possible discrimination with thorough and objective investigations. Further, any employment actions taken against an employee after they have filed a complaint — either internally or externally — should be related solely to their job and meticulously documented.


Pennsylvania Jury Finds Female Professor’s Retaliation Claims Pass the Test

A federal jury has awarded a female professor lost earnings and punitive damages on two counts of employment retaliation, despite rejecting her claim of sex discrimination in a university’s distribution of coveted teaching assignments. Baugh v. Robert Morris University, No. 2016-cv-430 (W.D. Pa. Sept. 11, 2018).

Jeanne Baugh, a computer programming professor at Robert Morris University (RMU), filed a lawsuit against RMU in the Western District of Pennsylvania in 2016 alleging sex discrimination, retaliation, and a hostile work environment in violation of Title VII, Title IX, and the Pennsylvania Human Relations Act (PHRA). According to the complaint, RMU retaliated against Baugh for filing a union grievance in 2013 when a Java class she had taught for nine years was taken away from her and assigned to a less qualified male professor.

Although Baugh settled her initial 2013 grievance with the school, she asserted that the Associate Dean called Baugh a liar at the grievance meeting and told her that her sex discrimination claim was “laughable” and he was “insulted by this,” despite admitting the process for assigning the course was “irregular.”

Baugh claimed that in the spring of 2014, the school again assigned the same Java class to the male professor. Baugh also claimed the school changed her teaching schedule from Tuesday/Thursday to Monday/Wednesday/Friday because of the grievance. The school argued that Baugh did not suffer an adverse employment action because she taught an advanced Java course, even if it was not at the graduate level, and that the school changed the schedules of all members of the department, not just Baugh’s.

On September 11, 2018, the jury rejected Baugh’s claim that the school awarded the spring 2014 graduate Java class to her male colleague because of her gender. However, the jury found for Baugh on her Title VII and PHRA retaliation claims, awarding her $2,627.49 in lost earnings and $10,000 in punitive damages, but declining to award damages for emotional distress.

This case provides yet another example of an employer exonerated on claims of sex discrimination, but unable to escape liability for retaliation due to a flawed response to the initial complaint. Employers should respond to a complaint of sex discrimination with a thorough and objective investigation and all subsequent employment actions impacting the complainant should be strictly job-related and well-documented.

Policies and practices should be reviewed regularly with employment counsel to ensure they effectively address organizational needs. Please contact a Jackson Lewis attorney if you have any questions and want assistance.

No Horseplay Here: Jury Awards Employee $2.4 Million in Damages for Sex Discrimination

A company’s potential monetary liability for workplace discrimination can be crippling. A jury in the U.S. District for the Northern District of Illinois had awarded a male grocery store butcher $2.4 million in compensatory and punitive damages on his claim of sexual harassment against a small grocery store located in the south side of Chicago. The lower court ultimately reduced the award to $477,500, because of Title VII’s statutory damage caps and the excessiveness of the award. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit has affirmed the award. Smith v. Rosebud Farm, Inc., No. 17-2626, 2018 U.S. App. LEXIS 21481 (7th Cir. Aug. 2, 2018).

Robert Smith sued his former employer, Rosebud Farm, Inc., for sex discrimination, alleging his male colleagues sexually groped and insulted him for more than four years. Smith claimed that his male, meat-counter colleagues would grab his genitals and buttocks. They would also repeatedly mime oral and anal sex, along with other comments and gestures. Smith colleagues also allegedly made inappropriate, racially charged comments. Smith’s supervisor ignored his complaints. In fact, Smith’s supervisor sometimes participated in the sexually inappropriate behavior as well.

After Smith filed a charge alleging sex and racial discrimination with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, his supervisor told his colleagues to stop goofing around. Smith subsequently found his car with the tires slashed and windows broken while parked in an employee-only lot.

The Seventh Circuit rejected Rosebud’s argument on appeal that the district court should have awarded judgment as a matter of law with regard to Smith’s sex discrimination claim, as well as a new trial. Title VII prohibits discrimination against an individual because of that individual’s sex and unwanted sexual conduct such as the kind in this case would not be automatically deemed sex discrimination. Rosebud employed 6 to 7 females and 15 to 16 males who interacted daily. Rosebud argued that Smith’s colleagues engaged in “sexual horseplay,” not sex discrimination. The Court found, however, that despite the store being a mixed-sex workplace, only males were groped and taunted. Even though there were only males working behind the meat counter, the Court said the store was small and there were enough females working to qualify as a mixed-sex workplace. Accordingly, the Court found a reasonable inference that Smith’s male colleagues harassed him because of his sex.

Rosebud also claimed that the district court should have granted summary judgement for his retaliation claims because Smith did not present evidence that his colleagues knew he filed a charge with EEOC. It further claimed that a new trial is appropriate because Smith’s attorney’s comments during his closing argument associated Rosebud’s conduct with terrorism in the Middle East. The Seventh Circuit rejected these claims as well, because these claims were not raised before the lower court.

Supervisor training and immediate investigation following complaints of discrimination or harassment are important to minimizing an employer’s potential liability. Employers should be cognizant of workplace horseplay and jokes to ensure that the behavior does not constitute unlawful discrimination.

How to Minimize Exposure to Jury Verdicts with Internal Investigations

It is more important than ever that employers conduct internal investigations of workplace complaints and take appropriate action when there is cause to do so. Proper investigations and thorough pre-litigation assessments can help employers minimize exposure to unfavorable jury verdicts and awards.

A case from the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York, in which the court upheld a jury verdict in a race discrimination case and assessed damages of $880,000 against the defendants, illustrates how expensive a failure to investigate workplace complaints thoroughly and take corrective action can be.

In Rosas v. Balter Sales Co., Inc., et al., No. 12-CV-6557 (S.D.N.Y. June 29, 2018), the plaintiff brought claims for discriminatory termination, hostile work environment, and retaliation under Title VII, along with a state law claim for battery. After an eight-day trial, the jury found in the plaintiff’s favor on all four claims and the district court upheld the verdict on all four claims. The jury awarded the plaintiff $800,000 in compensatory damages and $1.4 million in punitive damages. The district court remitted the award to $180,000 in compensatory damages and $700,000 in punitive damages.

The plaintiff, a Hispanic employee, worked for Balter Sales as a truck driver. At trial, he presented evidence of numerous incidents of race-based harassment by the company’s Vice President and co-owner. This included using racial slurs, mocking the plaintiff’s Latin accent, and complaining about difficulty understanding the plaintiff’s “Latin accent.” The plaintiff also presented evidence that another supervisor subjected him to unwanted physical contact and sexual advances. Plaintiff testified that despite his multiple complaints to his supervisors, the defendants failed to take steps to remedy the situation.

The company terminated the plaintiff after 15 months of employment, alleging that he stole merchandise. After his termination, the plaintiff testified that he informed the company that he intended to hire a lawyer. The company then filed criminal charges against the plaintiff.

After the plaintiff was arrested, kept in a holding cell, and criminally charged with theft, the company found the merchandise. The plaintiff presented evidence that, when the Vice President was informed that the merchandise had been found, he “blew it off.”

The court ruled the evidence allowed a reasonable jury to find for the plaintiff. Moreover, the court rule that “the temporal connection between Plaintiff’s complaints and his firing, could allow a reasonable jury to conclude that the theft allegations were merely pretext for the discriminatory termination of Plaintiff’s employment.”

As this case illustrates, an employee’s workplace complaints can lead to expensive litigation against an employer that fails to conduct an appropriate investigation before taking an adverse employment action.


Massachusetts Jury Returns Unprecedented $28 Million Verdict for Retaliation Claim

A Suffolk County jury recently awarded a Haitian–American nurse an unprecedented $28.2 million in total damages on her claim of retaliation against Brigham & Women’s Hospital, her former employer. At the same time, the jury rejected the nurse’s claim of race discrimination.

This verdict serves to emphasize what most employment litigators know from experience: juries appear far more willing to find an employer liable on a retaliation claim than on a discrimination claim, and they tend to award higher damages on retaliation claims.

The unprecedented amount of this verdict, however, cannot be explained solely by the fact that it was a retaliation claim. It is unclear whether this verdict is the result of a “runaway” jury, the first indicator that recent social movements will have a longer-term impact on normally parsimonious Massachusetts jurors, or the result of some other factor. While this verdict is a data point employers should watch carefully, it does not yet mark a substantive change in how discrimination and retaliation cases should be assessed.

The verdict consisted of $450,000 in economic damages, $2.75 million in emotional distress damages, and $25 million in punitive damages. When compared with prior verdicts, the economic damages awarded are not remarkable. However the emotional distress damages are high and the punitive damages are unprecedented.

From the face of the pleadings, the facts of this case alone do not explain the amount of the verdict. Indeed, this case appears to have a fact pattern relatively common to retaliation cases. Gessy Toussaint had worked as a nurse at Brigham for more than 11 years when a manager allegedly discriminated against another black employee. Toussaint claimed that she supported her colleague’s claim of discrimination and experienced retaliation as a result, including incidents of patient neglect by Toussaint allegedly fabricated by management.

While retaliation claims carry a higher risk of both liability and punitive damages, neither the facts nor these factors appear to explain the $25 million punitive damages award to Toussaint. A number of less-tangible factors may provide some explanation for the amount of the verdict. A “runaway” jury could have returned a verdict that is vulnerable to a remittitur, or court-ordered reduction. The jury may have viewed Toussaint as particularly sympathetic or defense witnesses as particularly unlikeable. The current pervasiveness of societal movements demanding an end to discrimination (e.g., #BlackLivesMatter and #MeToo) cannot be ignored, and a jury may use punitive damages to send a message.

While the verdict has been touted as a new standard by plaintiffs’ counsel in demand letters and settlement negotiations, the reality is that the amount of this verdict may not survive a motion for remittitur. Even if the verdict stands, it is in stark contrast to the typical Massachusetts jury verdict.

Jury Award of Emotional Distress Damages Must Be Reduced by Millions, Judge Rules

A federal judge in New York has ruled that a plaintiff could recover only a small portion of the $2.5 million a jury awarded him, granting the defendant’s request for the reduction. Saber v. New York State Department of Financial Services, No. 1:15-cv-05944 (S.D. N.Y. July 20, 2018).  Plaintiff Nasser Saber, who is Muslim, had filed an eight-count complaint alleging that the employer, the New York State Department of Financial Services (DFS), discriminated against him based on his religion and national origin, and otherwise retaliated against him in violation of Title VII, Sections 1981 and 1983, and New York Executive Law Section 296.

The DFS denied Saber’s allegations and filed a motion for summary judgment, which was denied in part and granted in part. The following issues remained for the jury, according to the court: “whether the failure to promote Plaintiff to the Chief Risk Management Specialist (“CRMS”) position was discrimination prohibited under Title VII”; (2) whether negative performance reviews, a two-day suspension, an unsatisfactory mid-year rating, and the assignment of lesser job responsibilities in 2014 was in retaliation for Saber’s complaint against DFS filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, and (3) “the amount of damages for Plaintiff Saber’s emotional distress, if any.”

After a six-day trial, the jury “(1) found that Defendant DFS had discriminated against Plaintiff Saber based on national origin, but not religion, when it did not promote him to CRMS, (2) found that Defendant DFS had retaliated against Plaintiff Saber for filing the EEOC complaint, and (3) awarded Plaintiff $2.5 million in damages for his emotional distress.”

DFS moved, pursuant to Federal Rules of Civil Procedure 50 and 59, for a judgment in its favor as a matter of law or, in the alternative, for remittitur of the jury’s damage award to an amount between $5,000 and $35,000. The court denied DFS’ motion for judgment, but granted its motion for remittitur in part and reduced the damages for emotional distress from $2.5 million to $125,000. The court noted that it was “[g]iving deference to the jury’s finding and yet honoring the principle that emotional distress damages are required to be compensatory (rather than punitive or exemplary.”

The court’s decision underscores the potential for an award of damages to be significantly reduced, and the importance of effectively litigating issues related to damages and filing appropriate motions following trial. Jackson Lewis attorneys have significant experience litigating and trying cases dealing with workplace issues, including discrimination, and retaliation.

Illinois Jury Rejects Transgender Worker’s Discrimination Claim


A federal jury in Illinois has rejected a transgender employee’s claim that she was discriminated against and illegally fired after she told her employer that she was transitioning.

In 2016, the EEOC filed a lawsuit against Rent-A-Center East, Inc., alleging the company discharged Megan Kerr illegally in 2014, after over a year’s worth of efforts to terminate her employment or force her to quit following her news that she was transgender. According to the complaint, the EEOC alleged that the effect of the practices of Kerr’s supervisors at the relevant store in Rantoul, Illinois, was to “deprive Kerr of equal employment opportunities and otherwise adversely affect her status as an employee because of her sex.”

Rent-A-Center denied the discrimination claims. According to the company, in July 2016, Kerr asked her supervisor to use a company truck on a Sunday to deliver furniture for a local civic organization project. Although Kerr’s request was granted, Kerr improperly used the vehicle to move her own personal belongings, in violation of Rent-A-Center policy. Kerr’s personal use of the vehicle, according to the company, is what led to her discharge the following day.

At trial, the eight-person jury rejected Kerr’s claims. It found that her transgender status was not a motivating factor in Rent-A-Center’s decision to fire her. Instead, it credited the company’s argument that the employee was discharged after she was caught improperly using a company delivery vehicle for her own personal use. The fact that Kerr’s story about her use of the company vehicle apparently changed dramatically over time may have been significant to the jury’s determination.

Discrimination claims based on transgender status are just one of many relatively new bases for bringing discrimination lawsuits. Jackson Lewis attorneys have significant experience representing employers dealing with workplace issues and lawsuits relating to transgender issues, whether they are allegations of discrimination or issues relating to internal training, requests for accommodations, and so on.

Restaurant Chain’s Spoiled Internal Investigation Leads to $8M Jury Award for Fired Employee

A Fresno, California jury has awarded nearly $8 million to former Chipotle employee Jeanette Ortiz on her claim of wrongful discharge.

The jury found Chipotle had fired Ortiz in retaliation for her filing a worker’s compensation claim of carpal tunnel syndrome. It also found Chipotle falsely accused Ortiz of stealing money to disguise the unlawful motive.  Faced with the possibility of additional punitive damages on top of the initial trial verdict, the fast-food giant settled with Ortiz after trial for an undisclosed sum.

Ortiz was a 14-year employee of Chipotle and worked as General Manager. By all accounts, she was a stellar employee with excellent performance reviews prior to her termination. Chipotle accused Ortiz of taking $636 out of a company safe on December 29, 2015, and placing it into her backpack. Ortiz vehemently denied stealing the cash. She told the company that the money was still in the safe on December 30, when she checked the safe with another manager. The second manager confirmed this. Ortiz reported the money missing on January 3, 2016. During its investigation of the theft (the money was not located), the company refused to show Ortiz the surveillance video purportedly showing her taking the money because it was against policy. The footage later was inadvertently deleted. Chipotle maintained that Ortiz had motive and opportunity and fired her.

How can employers avoid missteps in their internal investigations? First, take appropriate steps to preserve evidence. Chipotle’s surveillance camera automatically taped over itself after 45 days and the footage of Ortiz allegedly pocketing the $636 was then lost. Evidence may be on cell phones, in emails, in forensic data from a computer, or, as in this case, on a surveillance video. Do not wait until litigation is filed and rely on your attorneys to gather all of the documentation after-the-fact; in some situations, by the time a company hires outside employment counsel, evidence already has been lost. Management should be trained or advised to take such steps themselves. Everything relied upon in making an employment decision should go into the personnel file, including a disc with a copy of any electronic files.

Second, timing is key. The timing of employment decisions can have major consequences. Here, Ortiz texted her bosses on January 3, 2016, to say that the money was missing from the safe. Her supervisors later accused her of stealing the money and refused to show her the surveillance video. On January 18, Ortiz requested a medical leave of absence because her carpal tunnel syndrome was worsening. While she was on leave, her employment was terminated. Chipotle took too long to make its decision and an intervening event, Ortiz’s medical leave, made its timing appear suspect. Not only do companies have to act thoroughly, they must act quickly in making decisions related to employee misconduct, particularly when a termination is being considered.

Finally, know when to ask for help.  Any difficult employment investigation or personnel decision should be reviewed with experienced counsel to avoid potentially costly blunders.